Independent filmmaking, though often regarded as a relatively contemporary phenomenon, has actually existed as long as movies themselves. In this single-volume reference work, author Vincent LoBrutto covers the subject from the inception of cinema through the 21st century, with alphabetical entries discussing filmmakers, significant films, genres, critical views, industry information, and working methods. Written in an accessible style that includes biographical, critical, factual, and bibliographical information, the encyclopaedia encompasses films and filmmakers operating independently from the studio system in concept, financing, production, and distribution. This broad interpretation separates independent filmmaking from that of commercial Hollywood, a conglomerate that exists to create product rather than to support personal artistic vision. The reader or researcher can use the volume either as an encyclopaedic tool or as a study to be read from the first to the last page.