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A Study of the Hydrogen Electrode, of the Calomel Electrode and of Contact Potential, II, a Study of the Ethylene Electrode, III, Studies in Oxidation and Reduction (Classic Reprint)

By Walter Fieldhouse Clarke

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Excerpt from I: A Study of the Hydrogen Electrode, of the Calomel Electrode and of Contact Potential, II, a Study of the Ethylene Electrode, III, Studies in Oxidation and Reduction It is at once apparent that there are so many unknowns in this reaction that the conductivity and reaction velocity methods together cannot allow us to determine whether the cation or nonionized salt or both are hydrolyzed, but if we could measure at any moment the concentration of the hy drogen ions by means of the hydrogen electrode, we could solve this problem. Conductivity measurements by N ird linger showed that there can be at most only a few percent of the amide salt and it is therefore necessary to develop the hydrogen electrode to a high degree of reproducibility, if it is to be of service in this connection. As an illustration we can Choose a solution in which five percent of the hydrogen ions combine with the amide to form the amide salts. In order to show a change of percent in the hydrogen ion concentration and hence 2 percent in the concentration of the amide salt, we must make the measure ments accurate to o 000025 volt. N ow it is highly desirable in such studies to know the concentration of the amide salts to within percent, and hence we must be able to measure e. M. F. With an accuracy of 0 000001 volt. The smaller the percent of hydrogen ions disappearing in such salt-formation, the greater the accuracy demanded in the e. M. F. Measure ment. We have tried to devise methods to allow us to approach a reproducibility of 0 000001 volt. In studying the hydrogen electrode, the calomel electrode has been used as a standard; consequently the latter needed to be studied with respect to its constancy and ease of reproduction. This involves five lines of study, which, briefly, are: I. The determination of the average value of the potential of a large number of electrodes, arranged in batteries of ten, which were made up very carefully from chemicals purified by the best known methods, while the apparatus was kept as clean as practicable. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Product code: 9781330701430

ISBN 9781330701430